Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (128-144)
VALIDATION OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
SCALE IN A MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION
INSTITUTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND
PRACTICE
VALIDACIÓN DE UNA ESCALA DE CLIMA
ORGANIZACIONAL EN UNA INSTITUCIÓN DE
EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR MILITAR: IMPLICACIONES PARA
LA INVESTIGACIÓN Y LA PRÁCTICA
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.37135/chk.002.22.08
Research Article
Received: (16/05/2023)
Accepted: (07/08/2023)
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Departamento de Seguridad y Defensa, Sangolquí,
Ecuador
dacalderon@espe.edu.ec
David Alexander Calderón Arregui
Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE,
Departamento de Ciencias Económicas,
Administrativas y de Comercio, Sangolquí, Ecuador
mjgodoy2@espe.edu.ec
Marisol Josena Godoy Mena
Universidad de la República, Departamento
de Sociología, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales,
Montevideo, Uruguay
adriana.marrero.fernandez@gmail.com
Adriana Marrero Fernández
David Alexander Calderón Arregui - Marisol Josena Godoy Mena - Adriana Marrero Fernández
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 129
VALIDATION OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE
SCALE IN A MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION
INSTITUTION: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND
PRACTICE
VALIDACIÓN DE UNA ESCALA DE CLIMA
ORGANIZACIONAL EN UNA INSTITUCIÓN DE
EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR MILITAR: IMPLICACIONES PARA
LA INVESTIGACIÓN Y LA PRÁCTICA
The evaluation of organizational climate is a critical factor in business management, and
its importance is even greater in military higher education institutions, due to the high
motivation and commitment expected from their members. However, research on this
topic in Ecuador is scarce. The present study validates a scale to measure organizational
climate in Ecuadorian military higher education institutions. The instrument proposed by
Hernández, Garrido & Rico (2016) was applied to an intentional sample of 44 Military
Engineering School (ESINGM) members. Its reliability was evaluated using Cronbach’s
alpha coecient, obtaining values above 0.960, indicating high internal consistency. The
dimensions of the organizational climate present in the institution were identied, and the
results of the rst-level statistical validation were presented. It is concluded that the scale
is valid and reliable for measuring the organizational climate in this institution. In addition,
this study contributes to the understanding of the organizational climate in military higher
education institutions in Ecuador and may have implications for the management and
improvement of educational quality in the context of higher education in Ecuador.
KEYWORDS: Organizational climate, higher military education, measurement scale,
Ecuador.
La evaluación del clima organizacional es un factor crítico en la gestión empresarial, y
su importancia es aún mayor en instituciones de educación superior militares, debido a la
alta motivación y compromiso esperado por parte de sus miembros. Empero, en Ecuador
la investigación sobre este tema es escasa. El presente estudio valida una escala para
medir el clima organizacional en instituciones de educación superior militar de Ecuador.
Se aplicó el instrumento propuesto por Hernández, Garrido & Rico (2016) a una muestra
intencional de 44 miembros de la Escuela de Ingeniería Militar (ESINGM) y se evaluó su
conabilidad mediante el coeciente alfa de Cronbach, obteniendo valores superiores a
0.960, indicando una alta consistencia interna. Se identicaron las dimensiones del clima
organizacional presentes en la institución y se mostraron los resultados de la validación
estadística de primer nivel. Se concluye que la escala es válida y conable para medir el
clima organizacional en esta institución. Además, este estudio aporta a la comprensión
del clima organizacional en instituciones de educación superior militar en Ecuador y
puede tener implicaciones en la gestión y mejora de la calidad educativa en el contexto de
la educación superior en Ecuador.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Clima organizacional, educación superior militar, escala de
medición, validación, Ecuador.
ABSTRACT
RESUMEN
VALIDATION OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE SCALE IN A MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION:
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (128-144) 130
INTRODUCTION
Organizational climate is a widely studied
concept in the organizational literature and has
been shown to have a considerable inuence
on employee performance and satisfaction in
diverse types of organizations, including military
higher education institutions. The organizational
climate is a concept that belongs to the eld
of organizational psychology and refers to the
psychological environment that is generated in
an organization and that inuences the attitudes
and behaviors of its members (Schneider et al.,
2013; Hernández et al., 2020).
A positive organizational climate has
been associated with improved employee
performance and job satisfaction (Hakanen et
al., 2006). In addition, a healthy organizational
climate can also reduce absenteeism, turnover,
and job stress (Lee & Jang, 2020)job stress, and
fatigue (explanatory power = 56.7%. Therefore,
measuring and understanding the organizational
climate in military higher education institutions
is important to promote a healthy work
environment and improve employee performance
and satisfaction.
The measurement of organizational climate in
military higher education institutions is a relevant
topic in current literature. Piotrowski et al. (2020)
carried out a study on the organizational climate
in the Armed Forces, and it demonstrated the
importance of the organizational climate in the
behavior of the citizens of the army, pointing
out that “The Armed Forces, like any other
organization, are subject to the same rules that
govern behaviors organizational” (p. 706). In
addition, it highlights the particularities of the
study of the organizational climate in a military
institution.
In this sense, the validation of an organizational
climate scale adapted to the particularities of
military higher education institutions can have
important implications for research and practice.
For example, it may provide a useful tool for
assessing the organizational climate in these
institutions, identifying areas for improvement,
and developing strategies to promote a healthy
work environment and improve employee
performance and satisfaction.
In summary, organizational climate is an
important construct in military higher education
institutions and its measurement is essential to
understand its impact on employee performance
and job satisfaction. The validation of an
organizational climate scale tailored to the
particularities of these institutions may have
important implications for research and practice
in the eld of human resource management,
as it can provide valuable information for the
management and leadership of the institution,
as well as for future research in this eld. By
validating an organizational climate scale at
a military higher education institution, this
study may contribute to the understanding of
organizational climate in similar organizations
and provide valuable information for decision-
making and productivity improvement.
METHODOLOGY
The research is framed as a research study
within the positivist paradigm, based on
Hernández, Fernández & Baptista (2014) and
employs a quantitative approach. The type of
research is descriptive, as it seeks to validate
an organizational climate scale in a specic
institution. The research design is based on a
cross-sectional approach, where data is collected
at a single point in time. It followed the stages
proposed by Sanchez & Echeverry (2004), as
indicated in Figure 1.
First, an exhaustive review of the scientic
literature and the scales available to measure
the organizational climate in the eld of higher
education was carried out. Several relevant
scales were identied and their characteristics,
psychometric properties, and their adequacy to
the context of the institution were evaluated.
Once the most appropriate scale was selected,
David Alexander Calderón Arregui - Marisol Josena Godoy Mena - Adriana Marrero Fernández
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 131
it was translated into the language used in the
institution, to guarantee precision and semantic
equivalence.
Pre-tests were then conducted to assess their
understanding and usefulness in the specic
context of the institution. The object of study was
the Military Engineers School “Gral. Guillermo
Rodríguez Lara,” located in the province of
Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas in Ecuador. This
institution was selected due to the particularity of
being a military educational institution intended
for the training of Army military personnel, and
which is led by members of this institution.
An intentional non-probabilistic result was
shown for convenience in the selection of
study participants. That is, those members of
the institution who were available at the time
of the study and who voluntarily agreed to
participate in it were selected. Even though a
specic selection of the sample was not made,
participants from dierent areas and hierarchical
levels of the institution were excluded, which
allowed for obtaining a sample with a certain
heterogeneity and diversity of perspectives.
However, it is important to note that an
intentional non-probabilistic demonstration
for convenience has limitations in terms of
representativeness and generalization of the
results to the general population. Therefore, it
is advisable to be cautious when interpreting
the results obtained and consider carrying out
subsequent studies with more representative
samples for greater validity and generalization of
the results (Hernández, Fernández, & Baptista,
2014).
The nal sample consisted of 44 participants.
It is worth mentioning that, although the total
population in the institution is 65 members,
approximately 20% do not perform specic
functions within the institution, since they are
assigned to other military divisions as service
providers, therefore that they are excluded
from this research, due to the bias that can be
generated by not being in the institution.
To guarantee the condentiality of the data,
a unique code was used to identify each
questionnaire and the participants were assured
that the information collected would be used
solely for research purposes and would not
aect their employment relationship with the
institution.
The scale was applied, and comments and
suggestions were collected from the participants
on the clarity and relevance of the items, as well
as on the usefulness of the scale to capture the
organizational climate in the institution.
Subsequently, content, construct, and criterion
validity tests were carried out (Salinas &
Cárdenas, 2009). The content validity test
involves evaluating whether the survey questions
adequately cover the organizational climate
construct. Therefore, a descriptive analysis of
the answers to each question was carried out to
determine if the items capture distinct aspects of
the organizational climate.
Figure 1: Validation process of the organizational climate scale of a military higher education
institution based on Sanchez & Echeverry (2004)
VALIDATION OF AN ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE SCALE IN A MILITARY HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTION:
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (128-144) 132
Construct validity consisted of exploratory
factor analysis to examine the underlying
structure of the responses and determine if the
questions clustered consistently with theoretical
dimensions of organizational climate. This
allowed us to identify the underlying factors and
verify if they match the theory. The criterion
validity consisted of using statistical techniques
such as the correlation of the variable studied
with an external one to compare the results of
the survey.
Finally, a reliability analysis was carried out
to assess the internal consistency of the scale.
Cronbach’s alpha coecient was calculated
to determine the reliability of the items and
temporal consistency analyses were performed
using a sample of participants to whom the scale
was applied at two separate times (Oviedo and
Campo, 2005).
In addition, opinions and comments were
collected from potential users of the scale,
such as managers, teaching, and administrative
sta. An evaluation of its usefulness was made
in terms of clarity, ease of administration, and
relevance of the results for decision-making in
the institution.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
DEFINITION AND
CONCEPTUALIZATION OF
ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE IN
THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT
Organizational climate in the educational
context refers to the work and to the learning
environment experienced in an educational
institution, including the perceptions, attitudes,
values, and behaviors of the members of the
educational community. It is a key concept
to understand the functioning of educational
organizations and their impact on the quality of
education, the well-being of students, and the
performance of teachers (Rivera et al., 2016).
The organizational climate is:
The perception and appreciation
of employees related to structural
aspects (process and procedures),
the relationships between people and
physical environment (infrastructure
and work elements), which aect
relationships and inuence the behavioral
reactions of employees, both positively
and negatively, therefore, they modify
the productive development of their
work and the work of the organization.
(García, 2009, p. 48)
The organizational climate in educational
institutions has a signicant impact on
teachers’ motivation, commitment, and job
satisfaction, which in turn inuences their
academic performance and students’ well-
being (Manla, 2021)teachers’ commitment and
school performance held by principals, teachers
and parents and the relationship among these
variables. Thirty elementary schools of the third
congressional district of Bohol consisting of
200 teachers, 30 principals and 60 parents who
were randomly sampled took part in the study.
The teachers and parents completed two survey
instruments: Organizational Health Inventory
for elementary schools (OHI-E.
It has been found that a positive and healthy
organizational climate can generate elevated
levels of job satisfaction in employees, which
is related to greater motivation, commitment,
and loyalty towards the organization (Schneider
et al., 2002; Pecino et al., 2015; Zambrano &
Zambrano, 2022).
In summary, “the organizational climate
constitutes a fundamental element for the
ecient development of organizations, in the
educational eld, and in general terms.” (Blanco
et al., 2020, p. 1).
Its importance lies in the fact that it can
inuence the motivation, commitment,
and job satisfaction of the members of the
educational community, which in turn can have
a signicant impact on academic performance
David Alexander Calderón Arregui - Marisol Josena Godoy Mena - Adriana Marrero Fernández
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 133
and the learning environment (Pilligua &
Arteaga, 2019). Therefore, researchers and
educational practitioners need to understand the
organizational climate in educational institutions
and how it can be improved to enhance the
quality of education and the well-being of the
educational community (Rivera et al., 2016).
To Ucros (2011) this phenomenon has three
components or factors: personal, group, and
organizational, based on the approaches
proposed by Brunet (1987). These factors are
also studied by Hernández, Ponce, Garrido, Rico,
Reveles & Lerma (2016), and the dimensions of
these factors indicated by these authors will be
taken as a reference since it is the organizational
climate measurement instrument that will be
used for this study.
Individual psychological factors or personal
factors are related to the psychological processes
that are generated in the relationship between
people and organizations, and according to
(Schneider & Bartlett, 1968), cited by Ucros
(2011) include the individual’s need to establish:
social interaction and feelings of anity towards
the organization; in addition, the need to build a
positive or negative feeling of belonging to the
organization. This added to the feelings and the
way people react to the characteristics of each
organization and dierent situations, according
to their constructions of meanings. Among the
personal factors are:
1. Intrinsic Motivation: this is the level of
interest that an academic feel towards his
or her work because of factors internal to
the activity itself.
2. Identity: the level of knowledge and
connection that academics have with
the organization, as well as the pride of
belonging they feel towards it.
3. Autonomy: a person’s perception
of his or her ability to act and think
independently, without depending on the
desire or inuence of others about work
procedures, objectives, and priorities.
For Toro (2003) the organizational climate is
built from the collective and shared perception
of the group’s internal reality. Ucros (2011)
points out that there are group factors, which
originate from social aspects of the task that are
a source of permanent satisfaction and personal
growth, for example, the spirit of collaboration,
trust, interpersonal relationships, teamwork,
leadership, etc.
1. Teamwork: is the perception that
individuals have about the commitment,
collaboration, accountability, and skills
shown by the members of the organization
when working together.
2. Support: the perception that academics