KICHWA SHIMITA RIMANAKUSHPA SUMAKTA
YACHACHINA YACHAKUNAPISH
DIDACTIC INNOVATION IN TEACHING, LEARNING THE
KICHWA LANGUAGE FROM THE COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACH
INNOVACIÓN DIDÁCTICA EN LA ENSEÑANZA,
APRENDIZAJE DE LA LENGUA KICHWA DESDE EL
ENFOQUE COMUNICATIVO
DOI:
Artículo de Investigación
https://doi.org/10.37135/chk.002.17.07
Recibido: (17/08/2021)
Aceptado: (07/01/2022)
Universidad Nacional de Educación, Grupo de
Investigación: Interculturalización, diversidad cultural
y lingüística y formación de nuevas ciudadanías,
Sublínea: Enseñanza aprendizaje de las lenguas
originarias, metodologías, diseños curriculares
y didácticos e innovadores para L1-L2, Cañar,
Ecuador.
jose.duchi@unae.edu.ec
José Antonio Duchi Zaruma
Número 17 / AGOSTO, 2022 (109-121)
KICHWA SHIMITA RIMANAKUSHPA SUMAKTA YACHACHINA YACHAKUNAPISH
Número 17 / AGOSTO, 2022 (109-121) 110
KICHWA SHIMITA RIMANAKUSHPA SUMAKTA
YACHACHINA YACHAKUNAPISH
DIDACTIC INNOVATION IN TEACHING, LEARNING THE
KICHWA LANGUAGE FROM THE COMMUNICATIVE
APPROACH
INNOVACIÓN DIDÁCTICA EN LA ENSEÑANZA,
APRENDIZAJE DE LA LENGUA KICHWA DESDE EL
ENFOQUE COMUNICATIVO
Ecuador Mamallaktapa ñawpa shimikunaka llakipimi kan, shimikunaka punchanta
punchantami wakllirishpa rin, ayllukuna kichwa shimita paypak wawakunawan,
ayllukunawan pinkaymanta mana rimashkamanta, taytakuna, wamrakuna mana
rimanata munashkamanta, castellano shimi tukuy kuskakunapi, yachaykunapi, rimashka,
killkashka kashkamanta kichwa shimika wakllirishpa tukurikun. Kichwa shimi kawsashpa
katichunka, wawakuna, mutsu, kuytsakunami rimana kan, shinami kipa wiñaykuna kichwa
shimita rimashpa katinkakuna; Kichwa shimi ñawpa rimay kakpipish, wamprakuna,
wawakunaka ña mana rimanchu, castellano shimillatami rimankuna, shinami kay shimika
mama shimi tukushka. Chaymantami kichwa shimitaka wawapachamanta alli yachachina
kan. UNAE hatun yachana wasipika, runakawsayta, runashimita wiñachinkapak wasika
mana tiyanchu, shinallata imata yachachinamanta, imashina yachachinamanta, ima
hillaykunawan runa shimikunata yachachinkapakka mana tiyanchu. Chaymantami
UNAE hatun yachaywasipi kichwa shimita yachachikkunaka imashina kichwa shimita
yachaywasipi rimanakushpa alli yachachinamanta kimsa chunka shuklla shimita rimak
yachakukkunawan mashkaywan taripashkata karanchik. Kichwa shimi yachakuyka
rimaypi kurishpami rurarirka, ruraykunaka kikin kawsaypi yuyashpa yachakukkuna
alli hamutachun. Rimayka yuyayta charinmi rurarikpi, shuk shimita yachachinaka
rimanakunata yachachinami kan. Kay yachachiykunaka alli yachaytami shuktakyachin,
yachakukkunaman yachayka aychayashka kachun.
YANAPAK SHIMIKUNA: Yachachina-yachakunapish, kichwa, alli rimanakuna
The situation of the original languages in Ecuador is unfortunate, since the
displacement of languages is increasingly accelerated, due to factors such as the
interruption of the linguistic transfer in families, discredit and lack of areas of use
of the language, the Negative attitude of both parents and young people towards the
appreciation of the language, the centrality of the ocial language in the dierent
spaces of society, including information technologies, which constitute globalizing
agents of the dominant cultures. In the community of Kichwa language speakers,
despite this is a heritage language, it can be seen that children and young people
have increasingly lost their level of bilingualism and use the dominant language
as their communication language, which has become their mother tongue. At the
moment, at UNAE there is no institutional structure dedicated to the treatment
and study of native cultures and languages that determines the unity of content,
competencies, methodologies, resources and means. Considering the above, this
study tried to nd the methodological and curricular basis of the communicative
approach for the teaching of the Kichwa language from the knowledge of the
culture and it was carried out with 30 monolingual students. The methodology of
this research focuses on the application and validation of the didactic sequence,
based on the action of the teacher and the speaker to develop communication skills
and competencies. Oral language teaching-learning took place in communicative
contexts, within meaningful cultural activities for students. Communication, as
a process, is an act that only acquires meaning when it is carried out, that is,
when it is carried out, so that teaching a language is precisely teaching how to
communicate. These didactic actions mark situations of positive change, innovating
and improving teaching practice, promoting meaningful learning in students.
KEYWORDS: Teaching-learning, kichwa, communication skills
La situación de las lenguas originarias en Ecuador es desafortunada, por su
desplazamiento acelerado, debido a la interrupción de la transferencia lingüística
en las familias, desprestigio y falta de ámbitos de uso de la lengua, la actitud
negativa, de padres y jóvenes, el centralismo de la lengua ocial en los diferentes
espacios de la sociedad, incluyendo las tecnologías de la información, que
constituyen agentes globalizadores de las culturas dominantes. A pesar de que el
kichwa es una lengua patrimonial, se percibe que los niños y jóvenes han perdido
su nivel de bilingüismo y emplean la lengua dominante, que se ha convertido en
su lengua materna. Al momento, en la UNAE no existe una estructura institucional
dedicada al tratamiento y estudio de las culturas y lenguas originarias, que
determine unidad de contenidos, competencias, metodologías, recursos y
medios. Al respecto, el presente estudio buscó exponer la base metodológica
y curricular del enfoque comunicativo para la enseñanza de la lengua kichwa,
desde los conocimientos propios de la cultura. La metodología de la investigación
desarrollada se centra en la aplicación y validación de la secuencia didáctica,
basada en la acción de docente y dicentes, para desarrollar las capacidades y
competencias comunicativas. La enseñanza-aprendizaje de la lengua oral
se desarrolló en contextos comunicativos, dentro de actividades culturales
signicativas para 30 estudiantes monolingües del cuarto ciclo de la Carrera de
Educación Intercultural Bilingüe de la UNAE. La comunicación, en tanto proceso,
es un acto que solo adquiere sentido cuando se realiza, de modo que el enseñar una
lengua es precisamente enseñar a comunicar. Estas acciones didácticas marcan
situaciones de cambio positivo, innovando y mejorando la práctica docente y
promoviendo un aprendizaje signicativo en los estudiantes.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Enseñanza-aprendizaje, kichwa, competencias
comunicativas
SHUKLLAYUYAY
ABSTRACT RESUMEN
José Antonio Duchi Zaruma
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 111
KALLARIYUYAY
Ecuador mamallaktapika tawka kawsaykunami
tiyan, kay kawsay ukukunapika sumak
yachaykunata, ruraykunatami charinchik,
ashtawanpish chay yachay ruraykunami
kawsaytaka sumakta shuktakyachin, pi
kashkata, maymanta kashkatapishmi riksichin.
Kay kawsaypa nipakunamanta rikushpaka rimay
shimimi ashtawan achikyachishpa rikuchin,
shimipika tukuy ñukanchikpa yachaykunata,
ruraykunatami rikuchishpa rimanchik,
killkanchikpish, kichwa shimi wañukpika runa
kawsaypish paktami chinkanka.
Kay sinchiyachiykunataka, yachanawasikunapi,
ayllu ukupi, ayllullaktapi, tantanakuykunapi,
pushanawasikunapi, kitikunapipishmi rurashpa
katina kanchik, shina tukuylla llamkashpami
Runa kawsaytapish ishkay shimi yachaytapish
pakta pakta sinchiyachishpa kawsashun.
Kay yachayka kichwa runakunapa yachayta,
kawsaytapish sinchiyachinkapakmi ruranchik;
shinallatak, ñukanchikpa yachachiy
yachakuypash sumakta kawsarichunmi kan.
Shina kay yachakuykunata sinchiyachishpallami
Runa Kawsayta, yachayta, kawsaypuratapish
ñawpaman llukchishun.
Tukuy Ecuador mama llaktapi, kichwa
shimika, mana killkarishkamanta, llakichishka
wakllichishkami kana kashka; kutin wakinpika
kichwa shimita killkash shukkllayachishkapish
pitilla yuyaymanmi apana kashka (Grzech 2017).
Shinapish kay yuyayka, kunan punchakunapika
shuktakyarishkami; ñapish, runakunamanka
kichwa shimi shukniki shimi kana shinaka,
ishkayniki shimimi tukushka.
Kay yachaywanka, chaskiy pakchikunatami
ashtawan allichinata yuyanchik (uyana,
killkakatina), kaykunawan yachakukkuna
rimaypi shina, killkanapi shina ashtawan
hamutachun. Shinallatak, rimana killkana
pakchikunatapishmi allichinata yuyanchik,
yachakukkuna yuyaykunata, killkay wallpayta
wiñachichun.
Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para
las lenguas (Ministerio de Educación,
Cultura y Deporte 2002) kamupika, ishkay
shimita (L2) yachakukka tawka yachaykunata
paktaykunatapishmi rimanakunkapakka
charina kan. Kay yachayñanka, imashina
yachakuk chikan chikan llankaykunawan,
yachaykunawanpish mushuk shimita
yachakunkapakmi willapan. Kichwa shimika
rimaypimi kawsan (Montaluisa 2019;
chaymanta, Kichwa shimita yachakunkapak
shuktakyachaykunata paktankapakka,
yachachakukkunaka rimanakushpallami
yachaywasi ukupi, kanchapipish chikan chikan
hillaykunawan ashtawan alli kichwa shimita
rimay ushankakuna.
Paktaykuna. UNAE ishkay shimi kawsaytapish
yachakuk wamprakunaka kichwa shimita
runakawsay yachaywanpish rimanakushpa
yachakunatami purikachanka.
Ishkay shimi kawsaypura yachayta yachakuk
wamprakuna, shukkunapash kichwa ishkay
shimi (L2) yachashkata paktankapak,
tupunkapakpish paktachina. “Rimaykachayka,
shimita yachachinapakka may allimi kan,
yachaykunawan, yuyaykunawan, hillaykunawan
yachakukka shuk rimak runakunawan pakta
pakta yachakunka” (Cantero 1998:72).
Ishkay niki shimita yachachina-yachakuna
pachapika, rimaykachayka may allitami yanapan,
shinapish yachakuk kashpa, kunan punchakuna
yachachik kashpa mana rimaykachay
yachachinataka allikachishkakunachu.
Ecuador Mama Llaktapipish imashina kichwa
shimita ishkay shimi shina yachahinkapakka
mana shuklla yachaykuna, yuyaykunapish
tiyanchu; shinallatak kichwa runakunapak
yachaykuna, yuyaykuna, kawsaytapish
chinpapurashpa yachachina ñankunaka
mana tiyanchu, chaymantami shimita alli
yachachinkapak llankana kan Marco Común
Europeopi nishka shina, runakunapa kawsaywan
chinpapurashpapish. Shinami kay taripay-
yachaywanka imashina kichwa shimita sumakta
yachachina ñanta riksichinata munani.
KICHWA SHIMITA RIMANAKUSHPA SUMAKTA YACHACHINA YACHAKUNAPISH
Número 17 / AGOSTO, 2022 (109-121) 112
TARIPAYÑAN
Kay shuktakyachayka yachachikpa llamkaypimi
tiyan, paymi yachakukkunapak llamkayta
shuktakyachinka, sumakyachinkapish, kayta
paktankapakka yachakukpa wallpayachaywan,
yuyaywanpishmi rimaykachayta paktanka.
Shinami pushakka yachakuk kichwa shimipi
rimashpa, rimanakushpapish yachakuchun,
llamkachunpish yanapanka. Yachakukkunaka
rimashpallami yachakunka, pantaykunaka
mana llakichishkachu kan, ashtawankari
alli yachakuypami yanapanka. Yachakukka
uyashpa, rimashpa, kilkashpa killkakatishpa
yachakushpapish, yachakuk wamprakunapa
rimaypimi ashtawan sinchiyachina kan.
Kay taripayka kawsaypura yuyaypimi kimirin,
maypimi pi kashkata rikuchin, shinallatak kayka
kikin shimita mustsushpa, rimashpallami alli
kana kan, kay yuyaykunaka ishkay shimita,
tawka shimita rimashpallami paktachishka
kanka (Ramírez 2001). Kay pachakunapika, runa
shimika kikin kawsayta mashkashpami shuktak
shikikunawan chimpapurashpa llakikunata
charin.
Kay yachachiy taripayta rurankapaka
(investigación acción participativa IAP)
taripay ñanpimi kimirishkanchik; kay taripay
ñamka yanapashkami yachay ukukunapi
ima tukukta, imashinami yachayta pusharin,
ima yachaykunatami kararin, ashtawankari
imashina chikan chikan patay milkakunata
yachachirikta (Fals 1999). Kay taripay ñanka
allitatakmi yanapan yachay ukukunapi
yachachiykunata taripashpa, yachayta
ashtawan sinchiyachinkapa, killkankapapish
tukuykunaman yachaykunata sinchiyachichun
yachachinkapak killkaykunawan.
Kay taripayka tukuy kuskakunapi imashina
yachayta kallarishkamanta pachami
yachaykunata hapishka kan, shina, yachachikmi
kallariypika shuk yachayñanta rurapan,
chaypa washaka, chay yachayñantami
yachakukkunaman riksichin arininakunkapak,
chaypa washaka ña yachayta ruraparin
yachachikka yachachishpa, yachakukkunaka
yachakushpa waykalla minkarinakushpa
sumakta yachaypa pushawarin.
Kay hillaykunawanmi taripashka kan: shuk
nikipika rikuywan, imashinami wamprakuna
yachaypi kurinkuna, imashinami kichwa rimayta
hapinkuna; shinallatak, yachakuy pachapi
yachayta kamashpa; yachakuy llamkaykunata,
wasiruraykunata kamashpa; ashtawanka
paykunawan rimanakushpa, imashinami
kichwa yachayta hamutakunkuna; tapuykunata
killkachishpa. Kamayka rurarishkami kimsa
pachapi, shuknikipika yachakuy allichiypi,
ishkaynikipika, yachakuypi, kimsanikipika
tukuriy llamkaywan, puchukaypika tukuriy
llamkayta rikuchishka kipa.
TARIPAYKUNA
RIMANAKUYKUNAPISH
Kichwa shimika shuktak karullaktamanta
(indoeuropeo) shimikuna shinallatakmi kapan.
Shinapish kunan punchakunapika mana
kawsaywan pakta paktachu ñawpaman rishka,
yuyaykunata, yachaykunata riksichinkapak.
Shinapish Mexico, Perú, Ecuador
mamallaktakunapika kikin shimikunatak
wiñachinkapak, sinchiyachinkapakka sumak
llankaykunami rurarishka; shinami charinchik
Programa de Formación de Maestros Bilingües
de la Amazonia Peruana FORMABIAP, creada
en 1988”. “El Consejo Regional Indígena
del Cauca CRIC reintrodujo el uso activo
de las lenguas indígenas de su territorio en
sus actividades sociales y políticas” (López
2015:267).
“(…) ishkay chunka patsakri chawpimanta
ishkay chunka shuk patsakri kallari
watakunakamanmi ishkay chunka sukta Ecuador
kichwa shimimanta killkashka kamukuna tiyan”
(Potosí 2005:131). Chay watakunamanta kunan
punchakunakamanka shimiyuk kamukuna,
shimi kamachik kamukunallami killkarishka.
Chaymantachari kichwata rimak runakunaka
José Antonio Duchi Zaruma
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 113
ashtawa ashallakuna kan; chaymantami kichwa
shimipika mana sumak hatun yuyaykuna
wiñarishka. Shinami (López 2017:19)
nin “runaka pay kashkataka rimaywanmi
riksiytukun, kipamanmi shuktak yachaykunataka
hamutan, shinallatak shuktakkunaman
imashinakaytak wiñachin, rikuchinpish, shinami
rimayka yuyayta, yachaytapish wiñachin
sinchiyachinpish”.
Art. 13 del LOES, literal L, ninmi “Runakunapa,
llaktakunapa shimita, kawsayta, yachayta
wiñachina, sinchiyachinami kan” (LOES
2018:12). Universidad Nacional de Educación
yachana wasika chunka pusak runa kawsay
llaktakuna, chunka chusku hatun kawsay
markakunapak mañayta paktachishpami
ishkayshimi kawsaypura yachayta
wiñachinkapak yachachikkunata yachachishpa
shamun. Shinami UNAE sumak yachaywasika
ishkay waranka chunka sukta watamanta
shukniki, ishkayniki, kimsaniki, chuskuniki
patakunapi yachakuk wamprakunaman kichwa
shimita yachachishpa kallarin.
Universidad Nacional de Educación sumak
yachana wasika Ishkay shimi kawsaypura
yachaytami, ishkay waranka chunka sukta
watapi wiñachin, kutin kay yachaypika mana
achka ishkay shimita rimak (kichwa-castellano)
yachakukkunachu yachakunkpa yaykunkuna,
ashtawanka castellano shimita rimak
mishukunami chay yachaymanka yaykunkuna
(monolingües), kutin ishkay shimi kawsaypura
yachakuk tukunkapaka shuk runa shimillatapish
yachanami kan, chay mutsuywanmi kichwa
shimita, chay español shimillatak rimakkunama
yachachinata kallarinchik, yachachik tukushpaka
ishkay shimita rimashpa yachana wasikunaman
yallichunkuna.
Ishkay shimita rimak yachachikkuna kashpallami
ishkay shimi kawsaypura yachaytaka
sinchiyachina usharinkanka (Bombín 2016),
mana kashpaka, kunan pacha shuk shimillata
rimak yachachikkuna shina runapa shimitaka
wakllichishpami katinkakuna. Ña mana runa
shimipi yachachinkakuna, wamprakunata mana
kichwapi rimachinkakuna, chay llakika shamuk
punchakunapika runa shimi chinkarinami
yuyani. Sinami, imakunata rurankapaka kichwa
shimita kikin kawsaypa kakta rikurin, paywanmi
shuktak llaktakunawan rimanakurin (Iza 2019).
Kay kichwa shimita yachakuk yachakukkunaka
ishkay suyukunamanta kankuna, shukunaka
kucntisuyumanta, kutin shukkunaka
punasuyumanta, wakinkunaka runakunallatak,
shinapish ña kichwa shimita mana
taytamamakuna yachachishkakuna, kutin
wakinkunaka mishukuna kichwa shimita
yachakuna munankuna paykunapa runa
sapikunata kuyaywan yuyashpa; shinapish,
wakinpika kichwa shimika mana allí rikushkachu
kana kan (Toaquiza 2015); chaymantami kushi
yuyaywan kichwa yachaykunata sumakta
paktankunapish; kati milkapi charinchik mashna
yachakukkunami tiyan, shinallata mashna
shuklla shimita rimakkunata, kutin mashnami
ishkay shimita rimankuna.
En el ámbito escolar, los maestros usan el
quichua sólo para saludar al inicio de cada
clase, mientras los niños pueden saberlo
y usarlo extra-aula, pero no lo usan con
los profesores. Por ejemplo, en una de las
Escuelas del Milenio de una parroquia de
Bolívar, el uso del quichua es meramente
simbólico, folclórico y museístico: en las
paredes se encuentran escritos en quichua
los días de la semana, los meses, las partes
del cuerpo, los números, etc.; se usan
fórmulas de saludo muy elaboradas: allí
puncha mashi yachachik, allí shamushka
kachun, pero no se usa como lengua
de interacción real en la escuela. Por
otro lado, varios estudiantes hablan y
entienden el quichua, pero éste se usa en
la interacción extra aula. (Garcés 2020:12)
Garcés paypak taripaypi killkash rikuchin tawka
llakikuna kichwa shimipi kay punchakuna
rikurimushkamanta. Kichwa shimika kunan
punchakunallapimi killkayta, rimayta, uyayta
allichishka kan; chaymantami sinchitatak
hamutayana, yuyarinapish kanchik. Kunan
punchakunamanka tawka kamukuna,
shimiyuk kamukunapishmi killkarishka,
shinapish kaykunaka mana kichwa shimipichu
killkashkakuna kan, ashtawankari castellano
shimipimi kichwa shimi yuyayta, yachayta
killkashkakuna, chaymantami kichwa
sapiyuyaykuna wakinpika chinkarishka.
Sinapish kichwa shimipa yuyay-munayka
KICHWA SHIMITA RIMANAKUSHPA SUMAKTA YACHACHINA YACHAKUNAPISH
Número 17 / AGOSTO, 2022 (109-121) 114
willaymi kan, chay yuyaytaka pipash mana
imata nipnchuk (Kowii 2017).
Chay yuyaykunata hamutashpami kay yachay
llamkaytaka kichwa shimimantalla, kichwa
yuyaywanlla yachakuna, yachachina, killkana
yuyanchik, tukuy yachay shimi kamachikkunapi,
kaytaka yuyanchik rimanchikpish kichwa shimi
amawtariyachun.
Kichwa yachakuyka Ecuador kichwa
runakunapa kawsayta, kichwa shimita tantalla,
wayka sinchiyachinkapakmi llamkanchik kay
yuyawan:
• Kichwa runapura, may llaktapi kashpapash,
yuyaykunata alli hamutashpa hawalla
rimanakunkapak.
• Kikin kawsaytami sinchiyachin; shinaka,
kawsay pachapi pi kashkata, maymanta
kashkata, imashina kashkata, imashina
wiñarinatapish yachankapak.
• Yachaywasikunapi, yachaykunata
kichwa shimipi yachachikpika kichwa
shimita yachakkunaka ashtawan hawalla
hamutachun, paykunapa yuyaykunatapash
mana pinkashpa hawalla rimachun.
• Tukuy markakunapi suyukunapi
mamallaktakunapi chayshinalla kichwata
rurashpaka tukuykunami hamutashun,
shinaka, kichwa kawsaymarkatami
tantachishpa sinchiyachishun. Ecuador
mama llactapika sukta chinkan rimaykunapi
tiyan, chaymantami yachachikkunamanka,
chay chikan rimaykunatapish yachachina
kan, kichwa yachay yuyay sinchiyachun
• Ñukanchik llaktakunapa yachaykunata,
yuyaykunata, makiruraykunata, takikunata
arawikunata shuktakkunatapish alli
yachashpa sinchiyachinkapak.
Kay milka rikuchinmi, kanchis chunka
ishkay yachakukkunamantaka, pichka
yachakukkunallami ishkantin kichwa castellano
shimita rimankuna, ashtawanka shuk shimita
rimak yachakukkunami tiyan, nishun sukta
chunka kanchis yachakukkunami shuk shimillata
rimankuna. Kay rikuywanka shuk shimita
rimak yachakukkunamanmi kichwa yachaytaka
allichina kanchik.
Shukniki pataypi mana ishkay shimita rimak
yachakukkunata charinchikchu, ashunka
chunka shuk español shimitallatak rimak
yachakukkunatami charinchik, chaywanka
kichwa shimitaka ishkay shimi shinatakmi
yachachina kan paykunamanka; shinallatak
ishkaniki paytaypika pichwa ishkay shimita
(kichwa-español) rimak yachakukkunatami
charinchik kutin chunka kimsa shuk shimillatak
rimak yachakukkunatami charinchik, wakimpika
chay ishkay shimita rimak mashikunaka
achkatami yanapashkakuna, paykunami
mashikunataka uyaypi, rimaypi, killkakatiypi
killkaypipash yachakuyukupi kanchapipash
yanapashkakuna. Kimsaniki pataypika
ishkayniki shimita rimak yachakukkunataka
manata charinchichu, kutin español shimillatak
rimak yachakukkunataka chunka pusaktami
charinchik, chuskuniki pataypika ishkay shimita
rimak yachakukkunata mana charinchichu, kutin
castellano shimillatak rimak yachakukkunataka
kimsa chunkatami charinchik.
Kay rikushkamantami kichwa yachaytaka
ishkayniki shimi shina yachakuyta
kallarishkanchik; shinami, kichwa shimipi
imatak yachanamanta, imashina yachanamanta
sinchiyachinkapak wiñachinchik.