Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (25-34)
HOW DOES THE TENDENCY TO GUILT AND SHAME
IMPACT ACADEMIC FRAUD?
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR FUTURE EDUCATORS
¿CÓMO INCIDE LA TENDENCIA A LA CULPA Y LA
VERGÜENZA EN EL FRAUDE ACADÉMICO?
UN ESTUDIO PROSPECTIVO PARA FUTUROS
DOCENTES
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.37135/chk.002.22.01
Research Article
Received: (05/08/2023)
Accepted: (06/10/2023)
Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Faculty of
Psychology, Indonesia
herdian@ump.ac.id
Herdian Herdian
Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Faculty of
Psychology, Indonesia
gisellaarnisgrayana@ump.ac.id
Gisella Arnis Grayana
Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Faculty of
Psychology, Indonesia
citaihfacipari2015@gmail.com
Cita Ihfadaniati
Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Faculty of
Psychology, Indonesia
nuraeni@ump.ac.id
Nur’aeni Nur’aeni
HOW DOES THE TENDENCY TO GUILT AND SHAME IMPACT ACADEMIC FRAUD?
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR FUTURE EDUCATORS
Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (25-34) 26
HOW DOES THE TENDENCY TO GUILT AND SHAME
IMPACT ACADEMIC FRAUD?
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR FUTURE EDUCATORS
¿CÓMO INCIDE LA TENDENCIA A LA CULPA Y LA
VERGÜENZA EN EL FRAUDE ACADÉMICO?
UN ESTUDIO PROSPECTIVO PARA FUTUROS
DOCENTES
Academic cheating is an action individuals take to achieve success in ways that are not
right. Academic cheating is often done, ranging from basic educational institutions to
universities or students. Educators must have morals to reduce the actions of Academic
Cheating that often occurs at the education level. Guilt and Shame Proneness determines
unethical behavior, such as whether academic cheating will occur. This study aims to
determine the eect of Guilt and Shame Proneness on Academic Cheating in students of
primary school teacher education study programs. The current study assessed academic
dishonesty among college students in primary school teacher education programs. Two
hundred and eight participants self-reported cheating behavior and completed the Guilt
and Shame Proneness Scale. The regression test results for the inuence of Guilt and
Shame Proneness on Academic Cheating obtained a probability value of sig. (p) = 0.000
(p<0.05) so that the hypothesis is accepted: Guilt and Shame Proneness signicantly
inuence Academic Cheating. R-square value = 0, 075 means that Academic Cheating
eectively contributes 7.5% to guilt. The importance of moral inculcation in student-
teacher candidates must be considered to prevent unethical behavior
KEYWORDS: Academic cheating, guilt and shame, moral, prospective teacher
La trampa académica es una acción que realizan las personas para lograr el éxito de
maneras que no son correctas. A menudo se hacen trampas académicas, desde instituciones
educativas básicas hasta universidades o estudiantes. Los educadores deben tener moral
para reducir las acciones de Trampa Académica que muchas veces se presenta a nivel
educativo. La propensión a la culpa y la vergüenza determina el comportamiento poco
ético, como por ejemplo si se producirán trampas académicas. Este estudio tiene como
objetivo determinar el efecto de la propensión a la culpa y la vergüenza sobre el fraude
académico en estudiantes de programas de estudio de formación docente de primaria.
El estudio actual evaluó la deshonestidad académica entre estudiantes universitarios en
programas de formación docente de escuela primaria. Doscientos ocho participantes
informaron sobre su comportamiento de trampa y completaron la Escala de propensión
a la culpa y la vergüenza. Los resultados de la prueba de regresión para la inuencia de
la propensión a la culpa y la vergüenza en el fraude académico obtuvieron un valor de
probabilidad de sig. (p) = 0,000 (p<0,05) por lo que se acepta la hipótesis: La propensión
a la culpa y la vergüenza inuyen signicativamente en el fraude académico. El valor R
cuadrado = 0, 075 signica que la trampa académica contribuye efectivamente en un 7,5
% a la culpa. Se debe considerar la importancia de la inculcación moral en los candidatos
a estudiantes-maestros para prevenir comportamientos poco éticos.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Engaño académico, culpa y vergüenza, moral, futuro profesor
ABSTRACT
RESUMEN:
Cita Ihfadaniati - Herdian Herdian - Nur’aeni Nur’aeni - Gisella Arnis Grayana
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 27
INTRODUCTION
Education is an eort that aims to develop all
the potential within an individual that lasts for a
lifetime using values and culture that follow the
community. The development of an individual’s
potential is not only needed by that person but
also by the community, nation, and state. State
as a result of part of the social community
(Syahrina & Andini, 2017). Indonesia has three
education systems that can be taken, namely
informal, formal and non-formal (Wicaksono,
2018).
One of them is formal education. Formal
education starts from an early age and
elementary school to secondary school, then to
tertiary institutions as the highest educational
institution in a country’s education system, and
higher education also has a role in exploring and
developing human potential for higher quality
(Karim, 2020).
Students are intellectual resources who study in
universities, and students as one of the agents
for the progress of a nation. Apart from being
an intellectual resource, students must instill
character values in lecturing activities, including
obedient worship behavior, honest attitude,
discipline, responsibility, care, and cooperation
(Amelia, 2018). One of the characteristics that
must be possessed is honest behavior in lectures,
students must have the ability to do exams
independently and not cheat.
In college, measuring a student’s learning
success can be seen from the acquisition of the
cumulative achievement index (GPA). Subekti
(2015) states that intelligence aects obtaining a
GPA. However, other factors inuence the GPA
to rise, namely academic dishonesty (Herdian et
al., 2021). Cheating in academics is one of the
strategies students use to improve their GPA.
Gehring and Pavela (1994) dene Academic
Cheating as an act of deliberate falsication in
which individuals attempt to acknowledge other
people’s work or business without permission or
use unauthorized means and false information
in any academic assignment. “Academic
dishonesty is not only unprofessional but also
unethical. Academic dishonesty is taking a
“cognitive shortcut” by submitting work for
assessment that is not your own. It is misconduct
to gain an advantage” (Tipton, 2015, p. 228).
Academic cheating is an act that uses improper
means for the right or honorable purpose of
obtaining academic success or reducing academic
failure (Melina & Prasetyo, 2017). According to
Syahrina & Andini (2017), Academic Cheating
is an action taken by individuals to achieve
success in ways that are not right. Individuals
are willing to do things that are not appropriate
in order to get the value and success they want.
From the survey results Rangkuti (2011) showed
that Academic Cheating carried out by students
included:
1) copying test results from students sitting
or close together during the exam without
being noticed by the other students;
2) bringing and using notes that are not allowed
into the room, and
3) planned collaboration between two or more
students to provide answers during the
exam.
In line with research, Bintoro et al. (2013)
explain the forms of academic cheating:
cheating, fake, committing acts of plagiarism,
plagiarizing, bribing, replacing the position of
others in academic activities, and cooperating
with others by using verbal or gesture. Besides
that, Older students are less likely to report
Academic Cheating and are more likely to
anticipate feelings of guilt for Cheating (Brunell
et al., 2011) In addition, participants stated that
gender and age were associated with Academic
Cheating (McCabe & Trevino, 1997).
Reason Academic Cheating has been studied
by various studies, including religiosity (Djie
& Ariela, 2021); moral reasoning (Heriyati &
Ekasari, 2020)opportunity, and rationalization;
procrastination (Prasetyo & Handayani, 2019);
self-ecacy (Pradia & Dewi, 2020); condence
HOW DOES THE TENDENCY TO GUILT AND SHAME IMPACT ACADEMIC FRAUD?
A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FOR FUTURE EDUCATORS
Número 22 / ABRIL, 2024 (25-34) 28
(Syahrina & Andini, 2017); achievement
motivation and peers (Utami & Sri, 2019);
perception of school climate (Fitria, 2019);
eects of performance goals and social norms
(Daumiller & Janke, 2020)mixed ndings
suggest that especially the eect of performance
goals might depend on contextual factors.
Aims: We wanted to investigate whether crucial
aspects of the achievement situation inuence
the magnitude of the eect of performance goals
(here: focused on appearance; peer pressure
and anxiety (Pantu et al., 2020); Grit (Herdian
& Rahayu, 2022); parental pressure and
perfectionism (Lusiane & Garvin, 2019).
Academic cheating behavior is often associated
with moral concepts. Students who tend not to
have avor guilty due to low moral obligation
(Handayani, 2018). The covering or anticipation
of negative emotions, such as guilt and shame,
determines whether or not moral behavior
will occur (Tangney et al., 2007). So that the
anticipation of guilt and shame will prevent
students from engaging in unethical behavior
in academics (Staats et al., 2008). Research on
one hundred and ninety-nine college students
explains that lack of guilt is the cause of academic
dishonesty behavior (Brunell et al., 2011).
According to Tracy et al. (2009), guilt is self-
awareness of negative things so that guilt arises
because the individual has done the wrong
action or made a mistake that, according to him
and his environment, the action is not following
the norm. Guilt can be dened as introspective,
which reects the relationship between self and
negative events (Baumeister et al., 2007).
Based on the literature review, this study aims
to examine Guilt and Shame Proneness against
academic cheating. This research was conducted
on primary school teacher education study
program students. The main reason the research
was conducted on these students is that they will
become educators after graduation. As the main
requirement for teachers in Indonesia, exemplary
is an important thing to be instilled from an early
age during lectures. Exemplary is also a way of
instilling morals for his profession in the future
METHODOLOGY
This study used a cross-sectional approach.
Guilty and shame as independent variables, while
academic dishonesty is the dependent variable.
The participants in this study were students
of Elementary School Teacher Education at
University in Indonesia. The sampling technique
used is simple random sampling.
This involves randomly selecting samples from
the population without considering the existing
strata within that population. Participants
consisted of 78 male students and 130 female
students with an age range of 20-21 years. Table
1 shows demographic participants. All students
provided informed consent, and all completed
questionnaires were collected on the same day
they were administered.
Table 1: Demographic Data
Academic cheating is measured by the Academic
Cheating scale using the proprietary aspect by
Bashir & Bala (2018)the exploratory factor
analysis (EFA consists of 30 items. The reliability
coecient value on the Academic Cheating
scale is Cronbach’s alpha of 0.932. The scale
consists of six aspects: exam, plagiarism, help
from others, cheating, falsication, and task.
This scale uses ve alternative answers. This
study used a Likert scale measurement of 1-6
from the answer choices of strongly disagree to
agree strongly. Guild and shame measured using
the GASP scale (Guilt and Shame Proneness
Scale) developed by Cohen et al. (2011)there is
disagreement about how 2 prototypical moral
Cita Ihfadaniati - Herdian Herdian - Nur’aeni Nur’aeni - Gisella Arnis Grayana
CHAKIÑAN. Revista de Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades / ISSN 2550 - 6722 29
emotions-guilt and shame-should be dened,
dierentiated, and measured. We addressed
these issues by developing a new assessment-
the Guilt and Shame Proneness scale (GASP
and has been tested for psychometric properties
by Istyqomah (2018). GASP (Guilt and Shame
Proneness Scale) consists of four aspects: Guilt-
negative-behavior-evaluation, Guilt-repair